United States Elections Project
   
 

Dr. Michael P. McDonald

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Non-Resident Senior Fellow, Brookings Institution
Associate Professor, George Mason University
Department of Public and International Affairs
4400 University Drive  MSN 3F4
Fairfax, VA 22030-4444

Office: 703-993-4191
Fax: 703-993-1399
Email: mmcdon@gmu.edu

Education 

Post-Doctoral Fellow. Harvard University. August 1998 – August 1999.
Ph.D. Political Science. University of California, San Diego. February, 1999.
BS Economics. California Institute of Technology. June, 1989.

Awards

Tides Foundation Pizzigati Prize. 2013. Winner, Software in the Public Interest for DistrictBuilder.

Strata Innovation Award. 2012. Winner, Data Used for Social Impact for DistrictBuilder.

American Political Science Association, Information and Technology Politics Section. 2012. Winner, Software of the Year for DistrictBuilder.

Politico. 2011. Top Ten Political Innovations for DistrictBuilder.

GovFresh. 2011. 2nd Place, Best Use of Open Source for DistrictBuilder.

Virginia Senate. 2010. Commendation, Virginia Redistricting Competition.

American Political Science Association, Information and Technology Politics Section. 2009. Winner, Software of the Year for BARD.

Publications

Books

Michael P. McDonald. Under contract. The Art of Voting. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Michael P. McDonald and John Samples, eds. 2006. The Marketplace of Democracy: Electoral Competition and American Politics.  Washington DC: Brookings Press. (Order).

Micah Altman, Jeff Gill, and Michael P. McDonald. 2003. Numerical Issues in Statistical Computing for the Social Scientist.  Hoboken, NJ: Wiley and Sons.  (Order).

Peer-Reviewed Articles

Michael P. McDonald. Forthcoming. "Calculating Presidential Vote in Legislative Districts." State Politics and Policy Quarterly.

Micah Altman and Michael P. McDonald. 2014. "Public Participation GIS: The Case of Redistricting." Proceedings of the 47th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, Computer Society Press.

Michael P. McDonald and Caroline Tolbert. 2012. "Perceptions vs. Actual Exposure to Electoral Competition and Political Participation." Public Opinion Quarterly 76(3): 538-54.

Michael P. McDonald and Matthew Thornburg. 2012. “Evidence for Mode of Interview Effects: The Case of Supplementing Exit Polls with Early Voter Phone Surveys.” Public Opinion Quarterly 76(2): 326-49.

Micah Altman and Michael P. McDonald. 2011. “BARD: Better Automated Redistricting.” Journal of Statistical Software 42(5): 1-28.

Michael P. McDonald. 2011. “The 2010 Election: Signs and Portents for Redistricting.” PS: Political Science and Politics 44(2): 311-15.

Richard Engstrom and Michael P. McDonald. 2011. “The Political Scientist as Expert Witness.” PS: Political Science and Politics 44(2): 285-89.

Michael P. McDonald. 2008. "Portable Voter Registration." Political Behavior 30(4): 491–501.

Michael P. McDonald and Justin Levitt. 2008. "Seeing Double Voting: An Extension of the Birthday Problem." Election Law Journal 7(2): 111-22. (Conference paper version at SSRN).

Michael P. McDonald. 2007. "The True Electorate: A Cross-Validation of Voter File and Election Poll Demographics."  Public Opinion Quarterly 71(4): 588-602.

Michael P. McDonald. 2007. "Regulating Redistricting." PS: Political Science and Politics 40(4): 675-9.

Micah Altman, Jeff Gill, and Michael P. McDonald. 2007. "Accuracy: Tools for Accurate and Reliable Statistical Computing." Journal of Statistical Software 21(1).

David Lublin and Michael P. McDonald. 2006. "Is It Time to Draw the Line? The Impact of Redistricting on Competition in State House Elections." Election Law Journal 5(2): 144-57. (Free On-line). 

Michael P. McDonald. 2006. "Drawing the Line on District Competition."  PS: Political Science and Politics 39(1): 91-94.

Michael P. McDonald. 2006. "Re-Drawing the Line on District Competition." PS: Political Science and Politics 39(1): 99-102.

Micah Altman, Karin MacDonald, and Michael P. McDonald. 2005. "From Crayons to Computers: The Evolution of Computer Use in Redistricting." Social Science Computing Review 23(2) 334-46. (Free On-line).

Michael P. McDonald. 2004. "A Comparative Analysis of U.S. State Redistricting Institutions." State Politics and Policy Quarterly 4(4): 371-396.

Michael P. McDonald. 2003. "On the Over-Report Bias of the National Election Study." Political Analysis 11(2): 180-186.

Micah Altman and Michael P. McDonald. 2003. "Replication with Attention to Numerical Accuracy." Political Analysis 11(3): 302-307.

Michael P. McDonald. 2002. "The Turnout Rate Among Eligible Voters for U.S. States, 1980-2000." State Politics and Policy Quarterly 2(2): 199-212.  

Michael P. McDonald and Samuel Popkin. 2001. "The Myth of the Vanishing Voter." American Political Science Review 95(4): 963-974.  Reprinted 2006 in Classic Ideas and Current Issues in American Government, Bose and DiIulio, eds. 

Micah Altman and Michael P. McDonald. 2001. "Choosing Reliable Statistical Software." PS: Political Science and Politics. 43(3): 681-687.

Bernard Grofman, William Koetzel, Michael P. McDonald, and Thomas Brunell. 2000. "A New Look at Ticket Splitting: The Comparative Midpoints Model."  Journal of Politics 62(1): 24-50.

Samuel Kernell and Michael P. McDonald. 1999. "Congress and America's Political Development: Political Strategy and the Transformation of the Post Office from Patronage to Service." American Journal of Political Science 43(3): 792-811.  

Law Review Articles

Micah Altman and Michael P. McDonald. 2013. "A Half-Century of Virginia Redistricting Battles: Shifting from Rural Malapportionment to Voting Rights and Participation." University of Richmond Law Review 47: 771-831.

Micah Altman and Michael P. McDonald. 2012. "Redistricting Principles for the 21st Century." Case Western Law Review62(4): 1179-1204.

Michael P. McDonald and Matthew Thornburg. 2010. "Registering the Youth: Preregistration Programs." New York University Journal of Legislation and Public Policy 13(3): 551-72.

Micah Altman and Michael P. McDonald. 2010. "The Promise and Perils of Computers in Redistricting." Duke J. Constitutional Law and Public Policy 5: 69-112.

Justin Levitt and Michael P. McDonald. 2007. "Taking the 'Re' out of Redistricting: State Constitutional Provisions on Redistricting Timing."  Georgetown Law Review 95(4): 1247-86.

Peer-Reviewed Book Chapters

Michael P. McDonald. Forthcoming. "Income Inequality and Political Behavior." in Political Trust and Disenchantment with Politics: Comparative Perspectives from around the Globe, Christina Eder, Ingvill Mochmann, Markus Quandt eds. Leiden, Netherlands: Brill Publishers.

Michael P. McDonald. 2010. "Income Inequality and Participation in the United States."in United in Diversity? Comparing Social Models in European and America, Jens Alber and Neil Gilbert, eds.  New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Michael P. McDonald. 2008. "Redistricting and the Decline of Competitive Congressional Districts."in Mobilizing Democracy: A Comparative Perspective on Institutional Barriers and Political Obstacles, Margaret Levi, James Johnson, Jack Knight, and Susan Stokes, eds. New York, NY: Russell Sage Publications. 

Michael P. McDonald. 2008. "Reforming Redistricting." in Democracy in the States: Experiments in Elections Reform, Bruce Cain, Todd Donovan, and Caroline Tolbert, eds. Washington, DC: Brookings Press.

Michael P. McDonald. 2006. "Who's Covered?  Section 4 Coverage Formula and Bailout."in The Future of the Voting Rights Act, David Epstein, Richard H. Pildes, Rodolfo O. de la Garza, and Sharyn O'Halloran, eds.  New York, NY: Russell Sage Publications.

Micah Altman, Jeff Gill, and Michael P. McDonald. 2004. "A Comparison of the Numerical Properties of EI Methods" in Ecological Inference: New Methods and Strategies, Gary King, Ori Rosen, and Martin Tanner, eds.  New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Non-Peer-Reviewed Book Chapters

Michael P. McDonald. Forthcoming. "State Legislative Redistricting." Guide to State Politics and Policy, Richard Niemi and Joshua Dyck, eds. Washington, DC: CQ Press.

Micah Altman and Michael P. McDonald. 2012. “Technology for Public Participation in Redistricting” in Redistricting in the West, Gary Moncrief, ed. Lanham, MD: Lexington Press.

Michael P. McDonald. 2012. "Democracy in American Elections" in Imperfect Democracies: The Democracy Deficit in Canada and the United States, Richard Simeon and Patti Lenard, eds. Vancouver, BC: University of British Columbia Press.

Michael P. McDonald and Thomas Schaller. 2011. "Voter Mobilization in the 2008 Presidential Election" in The Change Election: Money, Mobilization and Persuasion in the 2008 Federal Elections, David Magleby, ed. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press. (previously published as a Pew Charitible Trusts monograph).

Michael P. McDonald. 2011. "Congressional Redistricting" in Oxford Handbook of Congress, Frances Lee and Eric Schickler, eds. Cambridge, UK: Oxford University Press.

Michael P. McDonald. 2011. "Voter Turnout: Eligibility Has Its Benefits" in Controversies in Voting Behavior, 2nd Edition, Richard G. Niemi, Herbert F. Weisberg, and David Kimball, eds. Washington, DC: CQ Press.

Michael P. McDonald. 2010. "In Support of Non-Partisan Redistricting." in Debating Reform: Conflicting Perspectives on How to Mend American Government and Politics, Richard Ellis and Mike Nelson, eds. Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly Press.

Michael P. McDonald.  2010. "American Voter Turnout in Historical Perspective."in Oxford Handbook of American Elections and Political Behavior, Jan Leighley, ed.  Cambridge, UK: Oxford University Press.

Michael P. McDonald. 2009. "Mechanical Effects of Duverger’s Law in the USA."in Duverger’s Law of Plurality Voting: The Logic of Party Competition in Canada, India, the United Kingdom and the United States, Bernard Grofman, André Blais and Shaun Bowler, eds. New York, NY: Springer.

Michael P. McDonald. 2008. "United States Redistricting: A Comparative Look at the 50 States." in Redistricting in Comparative Perspective, Lisa Handley and Bernard Grofman, eds. Oxford, U.K.: Oxford University Press.

Michael P. McDonald and Matthew Thornburg. 2008. "State and Local Redistricting" in Political Encyclopedia of U.S. States and Regions, Donald Haider-Markel, ed. New York, NY: MTM Publishing.

Michael P. McDonald. 2006. "Redistricting and District Competition."in The Marketplace of Democracy, Michael P. McDonald and John Samples, eds.  Washington, DC: Brookings Press. 

Micah Altman, Karin Mac Donald, and Michael P. McDonald. 2005. "Pushbutton Gerrymanders? How Computing Has Changed Redistricting." in Party Lines: Competition, Partisanship and Congressional Redistricting, Bruce Cain and Thomas Mann, eds.  Washington, DC: Brookings Press.

Bruce Cain, Karin Mac Donald, and Michael P. McDonald. 2005. "From Equality to Fairness: The Path of Political Reform Since Baker v Carr." in Party Lines: Competition, Partisanship and Congressional Redistricting, Bruce Cain and Thomas Mann, eds.  Washington, DC: Brookings Press.

Michael P. McDonald. 2005. "Validity, Data Sources" in Encyclopedia of Social Measurement, Vol. 3.  Kimberly Kempf-Leonard, ed. San Deigo, CA: Elsevier Inc.  

Michael P. McDonald. 2005. "Reporting Bias" in Polling in America: An Encyclopedia of Public Opinion.  Benjamin Radcliff and Samuel Best, eds.  Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.  

Other Non-Peer Reviewed Academic Publications (Invited Articles, Book Reviews, etc.)

Michael P. McDonald. 2011. “Redistricting Developments of the Last Decade—and What's on the Table in This One.” Election Law Journal 10(3): 313-318.

Michael P. McDonald and Chrisopher Z. Mooney. 2011. “‘Pracademics’: Mixing an Academic Career with Practical Politics.” PS: Political Science and Politics 44(2): 251-53.

Michael P. McDonald. 2011. "Voter Turnout in the 2010 Midterm Election." The Forum 8(4).

Michael P. McDonald. Forthcoming. "Redistricting: The Most Political Activity in America by Charles S. Bullock III (book review)." American Review of Politics (Fall 2011/Spring 2011).

Michael P. McDonald. 2009. "'A Magnificent Catastrophe' Retold by Edward Larson (book review)." The Election Law Journal 8(3): 234-47.

Michael P. McDonald. 2008. "The Return of the Voter: Voter Turnout in the 2008 Presidential Election." The Forum 6(4).

Michael P. McDonald. 2006. "American Voter Turnout: An Institutional Perspective by David Hill (book review)."  Political Science Quarterly 121(3): 516-7.

Micah Altman and Michael P. McDonald. 2006. "How to Set a Random Clock (Remarks on Earnest 2006)."  PS: Political Science and Politics 39(4): 795.

Michael P. McDonald. 2004. "Up, Up, and Away!  Turnout in the 2004 Presidential Election."  The Forum (2):4.  Dec. 2004.

Michael P. McDonald. 2004. "Drawing the Line on the 2004 Congressional Elections."  Legislative Studies Section Newsletter (Fall): 14-18.

Michael P. McDonald. 2004. "2001: A Redistricting Odyssey."  State Politics and Policy Quarterly 4(4): 369-370.

Micah Altman and Michael P. McDonald. 1999. "Resources for Testing and Enhancement of Statistical Software" in The Political Methodologist 9(1).

Michael P. McDonald. 1999. "Representational Theories of the Polarization of the House of Representatives" in Legislative Studies Section Newsletter, Extension of Remarks 22(2): 8-10.

Michael P. McDonald. 2003. "California Recall Voting: Nuggets of California Gold for Political Behavior."  The Forum (1) 4. 

Reports

Michael P. McDonald. 2009. Voter Preregistration Programs. George Mason University Monograph.

Michael P. McDonald. 2009. Midwest Mapping Project. George Mason University Monograph.

Michael P. McDonald and Matthew Thornburg. 2008. "The 2008 Virginia Election Administration Survey." Fairfax, VA: George Mason University.

Kimball Brace and Michael P. McDonald. 2005. "Report to the Election Assistance Commission on the Election Day Survey."  Sept. 27, 2005.

Opinion Editorials

Michael P. McDonald 2013. "Truths and Uncertainties that Surround the 2014 Midterms." The Hill. November 5, 2013.

Michael P. McDonald. 2011. “The Shape of Things to Come: New Software May Help the Public Have a Crucial Redrawing of Voting Districts.” Sojouners. April 2011: 11-12. 

Micah Altman and Michael P. McDonald. 2011. "The Dawn of Do-It-Yourself Redistricting?" Campaigns and Elections Magazine.

Michael P. McDonald. 2010. "Who Voted in 2010, and Why It Matters for 2012." AOL News. Nov. 4, 2010.

Michael P. McDonald and Seth McKee. 2010. "The Revenge of the Moderates." The Politico, Oct. 10, 2010.

Michael P. McDonald and Micah Altman. "Pulling Back the Curtain on Redistricting." The Washington Post, July 9, 2010.

Michael P. McDonald. 2008. "This May Be the Election of the Century." The Politico, Sept. 9, 2008.

Michael P. McDonald. 2008. "Super Tuesday Turned into a Super Flop." Roll Call, Feb. 11, 2008.

Michael P. McDonald. 2006. "Rocking the House: Competition and Turnout in the 2006 Midterm Election."  The Forum 4(3).

Michael P. McDonald. 2006. "5 Myths About Turning Out the Vote."  The Washington Post.  Oct. 29, 2006, p. B3.

Michael P. McDonald. 2006. "Supreme Court Lets the Politicians Run Wild."  Roll Call. June 29, 2006.

Michael P. McDonald. 2006. "Re-Redistricting Redux." The American Prospect. March 6, 2006.

Michael P. McDonald and Kimball Brace. "EAC Survey Sheds Light on Election Administration." Roll Call. Oct. 27, 2005.

Michael P. McDonald. 2004. “The Numbers Prove that 2004 May Signal More Voter Interest.”  Milwaukee Journal Sentinel.  Milwaukee, WI.

Michael P. McDonald. 2004. "Democracy in America?"  La Vanguardia.  Barcelona, Spain.

Michael P. McDonald. 2003. "Enhancing Democracy in Virginia." Connection Newspapers. March 24.

Michael P. McDonald. 2001. "Piecing Together the Illinois Redistricting Puzzle." Illinois Issues.  March, 2001.

Samuel Popkin and Michael P. McDonald. 2000. "Turnout's Not as Bad as You Think."  The Washington Post.  Nov. 5: B-1.  

Samuel Popkin and Michael P. McDonald. 1998. "Who Votes? A Comparison of NES, CPS, and VNS Polls." DLC Bluebook. Sept. 1998.

Software Packages

Micah Altman, Michael P. McDonald, and Azavea. 2012. “DistrictBuilder.” Open source software to enable public participation in redistricting. Source code available at Github. Project website, http://www.districtbuilder.org.

Micah Altman and Michael P. McDonald.  2007.  "BARD: Better Automated Redistricting." R package available through CRAN. Source code available at Sourceforge.

Micah Altman, Jeff Gill, and Michael P. McDonald.  2004.  "Accuracy: Tools for testing and improving accuracy of statistical results."  R package available through CRAN. 

Grants

To date, I have raised approximately $1.5 million to support my research activities.

New York Redistricting. 2011. ($379,000). Project funded by the Sloan Foundation to provide for public redistricting in New York and continued software development.

Citizen Redistricting Education, Supplement. ($50,000). Money to support development of redistricting software.

National Redistricting Reform Coordination. 2009-2010. ($100,000). With Thomas Mann and Norman Ornstein. Project funded by Joyce Foundation to support coordination of national redistricting reform efforts by the Brookings Institution and the American Enterprise Institute.

Citizen Mapping Project. 2009-2010. ($124,000 & $98,000). With Micah Altman, Thomas Mann, and Norman Ornstein. Project funded by the Sloan Foundation. An award to George Mason University enables development of software that, essentially, permits on-line redistricting through commonly used internet mapping programs. A second award to the Brookings Institution and American Enterprise Institute provides organizational support, including the convening of an advisory board.

Citizen Redistricting Education. 2010. ($104,000). Project funded by the Joyce Foundation. Provides for redistricting education forums in five Midwestern state capitals in 2010 and other continuing education efforts.

Pre-Registration Programs. 2008-9. ($86,000). Project funded by the Pew Charitable Trusts' Make Voting Work Initiative to examine pre-registration programs (voter registration for persons under age 18) in Florida and Hawaii.

Sound Redistricting Reform.  2006-9.  ($405,000). Project funded by the Joyce Foundation, conducted jointly with the Brennan Center for Justice at NYU to investigate impacts of redistricting reform in Midwestern states.   

Electoral Competition Project.  2005-6.  ($200,000)  Project funded by The Armstrong Foundation, the Carnegie Corporation of New York, the JEHT Foundation, The Joyce Foundation, The Kerr Foundation, Inc., and anonymous donors.  Jointly conducted by the Brookings Institution and Cato Institute to investigate the state of electoral competition in the United States.  

George Mason University Provost Summer Research Grant.   2004.  ($5,000). 

ICPSR Data Document Initiative. 1999.  Awarded beta test grant.  Member, advisory committee on creation of electronic codebook standards.

Academic Experience

Courses Taught: Public Opinion and Voting Behavior,  Parties and Campaigns, Comparative Electoral Institutions, Intro to American Politics, Congress, Legislative Politics, Research Methods, Advanced Research Methods, Freshman Seminar: Topics in Race and Gender Policies, and Legislative Staff Internship Program.

George Mason University

  • Associate Professor. May 2007 - Present.
  • Assistant Professor. Aug 2002 - May, 2007.
The Brookings Institution
  • Non-Resident Senior Fellow. January 2006 - Present.
  • Visiting Fellow.  June 2004 - December 2006.

University of Illinois, Springfield. Assistant Professor. Aug 2000 - June 2002.
Joint appointment in Political Studies Department and Legislative Studies Center. 

Vanderbilt University. Assistant Professor. Aug 1999 – Aug 2000.

Harvard-MIT Data Center. Post-Doctoral Research Fellow. Sept. 1998 – Aug 1999.
Developed Virtual Data Center, a web-based data sharing system for academics.  Maintained Record of American Democracy (U.S. precinct-level election data).

University of California-San Diego

  • Assistant to the Director for University of California, Washington DC program. Sept 1997 – June 1998.
    Instructor for research methods seminar for UCSD Washington interns.
  • Visiting Assistant Professor. Spring Quarter 1997.
  • Visiting Assistant Professor. Summer Session, Aug 1996 and Aug 1997.
  • Teaching Assistant/Grader. Aug 1991 – March 1997.

Professional Service

State Politics and Policy Quarterly
  • Guest Editor.  Dec 2004 issue.
  • Editorial Board Member 2004-2010.

National Capital Area Political Science Association, Member, Council, 2010-2012.
Non-Profit Voter Engagement Network, Member, Advisory Board.  2007-present.
Overseas Vote Foundation, Member, Advisory Board.  2005-2013.
Virginia Public Access Project, Member, Board of Directors.  2004-2006.
Fairfax County School Board Adult and Community Education Advisory Committee, Member.  2004-2005.

Related Professional Experience

Media Consultant
  • Associated Press. Nov. 2010. Worked “Decision Desk.”
  • Edison Media Research/Mitofsky International.  Nov. 2004; Nov. 2006; Feb. 2008; Nov. 2008. Worked national exit polling organization's "Decision Desk."
  • ABC News.  Nov. 2002.  Worked "Decision Desk."
  • NBC News. Aug 1996.  Analyzed polls during the Republican National Convention.
Redistricting/Elections Consultant.
  • Consultant. 2012-13. Federal Voting Assistance Program. Analyzed voting experience of military and overseas voters.
  • Gerson Lehrman Group. 2012. Provided election analysis to corporate clients.
  • Expert Witness. 2011-2012. Backus v. South Carolina, No. 3:11-cv-03120 (D.S.C.).
  • Expert Witness. 2012. Wilson v. Kasich, No. 2012-0019 (Ohio Sup. Ct.).
  • Consulting Expert. 2011-2012. Bondurant, Mixson, and Elmore, LLP. (Review of Georgia's state legislative and congressional redistricting Section 5 submission).
  • Consultant. 2012. New Jersey Congressional Redistricting Commission.
  • Expert Witness. 2011. Perez v. Texas. No. 5:11-cv-00360 (W.D. Tex.).
  • Expert Witness. 2011. Wilson v. Fallin, No. O-109652 (Okla. Sup. Ct.).
  • Consultant. 2011. Virginia Governor's Independent Bipartisan Advisory Redistricting Commission.
  • Consultant. 2011. New Jersey Legislative Redistricting Commission.
  • Expert Witness. 2010. Healey v. State, et al., (USDC-RI C.A. No. 10-316--S).
  • Research Triangle Institute. 2008-2009. Consultant for Election Assistance Commission, 2008 Election Day Survey.
  • U.S. State Department. 2008. Briefed visiting foreign nationals on U.S. elections.
  • Expert Witness. 2008. League of Women Voters of Florida v. Browning (08-21243-CV-ALTONAGA/BROWN).
  • Pew Center for the States. 2007. Consultant for Trends to Watch project.
  • Expert witness. 2007. Washington Association of Churches v. Reed (CV06-0726).
  • Electoral Assistance Commission. 2005. Analyzed election administration surveys.
  • Arizona Independent Redistricting Commission. 2001-2003. Consultant.
  • Expert Witness. 2003. Minority Coalition for Fair Redistricting, et al. v. Arizona Independent Redistricting Commission CV2002-004380 (2003).
  • Expert witness. 2003. Rodriguez v. Pataki 308 F. Supp. 2d 346 (S.D.N.Y 2004).
  • Consulting expert. 2002. O'Lear v. Miller No. 222 F. Supp. 2d 850 (E.D. Mich.)
  • Expert witness. 2001-2002. In Re 2001 Redistricting Cases (Case No. S-10504).
  • Consulting Expert. 2001. United States v. Upper San Gabriel Valley Municipal Water District (C.D. Cal. 2000).
  • California State Assembly. 1991. Consultant.
  • Pactech Data and Research. Research Associate. Aug 1989 - June 1991. Performed database development and statistical analysis for a California political consulting firm's clients including: Democratic National Committee, Gorden Shwenkmeyer (a national political telemarketing firm), Southern California Gas, and Justice Department for the voting rights case Garza v LA Board of Supervisors.

Erdös Number: 4 (via Bernie Grofman)
Degrees of separation with Kevin Bacon: 3 (via Schwarzenegger in Gerrymandering)